Photography-for-beginners-how-cameras-wo

Exposure

For those beginning photography, exposure is key to capturing a great image.

Learning how exposure works will help you to take control of your camera and take better photos. Shutter speedaperture and ISO are the elements that combine to create an exposure.

As you’ll soon learn, these elements have an effect on more than the exposure. They also cause alterations in depth of fieldmotion blur, and digital noise.

Once you understand how each one works, you can start diving into manual mode. This is where you take control back from your camera.

The exposure triangle is a great way to remember the three settings. When combined, they control the amount of light captured from any given scene.

This will help you to understand that changing one setting will need a change in the others. That is if you are photographing the same scene with the same exact lighting conditions.

Read here for all the information you need on the exposure triangle.

 

Aperture

Exposure happens in three steps. We will start with the aperture. This is the hole inside the lens, through which the light passes.

It’s similar to the pupil of your eye. The wider the aperture, the more light is allowed in and vice versa. Simple? Not quite.

As the aperture widens, the f/number gets lower and more light is allowed into the camera. This is great for low light. But be aware that it’s going to make the depth of field very shallow. This is not ideal when taking landscapes photos.

So this is a short summary but I go into full detail about that in this post. The aperture is the preferred setting to set first, as it directly influences how much of your scene is in focus. But, if you are looking to create motion blur, then it is second to the shutter speed.

Exposure will be much easier if you can memorize the f/stop scale.

The scale is as follows: f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22.

 

Shutter Speed

Once the light has passed through the aperture of the lens, it reaches the shutter. Now you need to decide how much of that light you’re going to allow into the camera.

Ordinarily, you only want a very small fraction of a second (for example 1/250) to prevent motion blur. However, different shutter speeds complement different situations.

Anything from really fast (1/4000) for sports photography to really slow (30 seconds) for night photography. It all depends on what you’re shooting and how much light you have available to you.

Knowing how your shutter speed works is a key element in the basics of photography.

 

ISO

Once the light has passed through the aperture and been filtered by the shutter speed, it reaches the sensor. This is where we decide how to set the ISO.

As you turn the ISO number up, you increase the brightness. But, at the same time, the image quality decreases. There will be more digital noise or “grain”.

So you have to decide upon your priorities in terms of exposure versus the grain.

For example, I would reduce the image quality if it meant that I could prevent motion blur in my photo. There’s no possible way to fix that in post-production (yet, at least).

 

Exposure Summary

Once you’ve understood aperture, shutter speed and ISO, you need to learn how each of these elements of exposure work together.

For all those basics of photography, exposure is the most important.

If you don’t have this down, composition and framing become a moot point in beginner photography.

In this post, you will learn about the ‘stop’ based system for measuring exposure. And you’ll also learn how to prioritize the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO for the best photo.

 

Understanding Your Camera

Metering Modes

Digital photography for beginners can be confusing. Exposure isn’t as simple as learning about aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. You also have to learn about how your camera looks at light.

Metering modes are there to tell your camera how you want it to look at a scene.

The picture below was taken on spot metering mode. If you were to take the same photo using the evaluative mode, you would end up with a completely different exposure.

This is also covered in my free video training. If you’re looking for an article that explains digital, including Canon, metering modes, here it is.

Understanding this basic photography point might be the key to understanding why your photos are coming out underexposed or overexposed.

 

Histograms

The histogram shows you a mathematical review of exposure after the photo has been taken. It tells you how evenly exposed a photo is. New photographers often find it frightening to understand. But it is easy, and I tell you how.

LCD screens aren’t very good at showing you this information through their display of the image. This is because they are affected by the ambient lighting conditions you’re in and the brightness of the screen itself.

That’s why the histogram is such a powerful tool to utilize in beginning photography correctly.

 

Shooting Modes

Full-Auto, Program, Aperture PriorityShutter Speed Priority or Manual Mode. How do you work out which one you should be using?

There’s also a lot of misconceptions about which mode to use under which conditions.

When you understand what each mode does, the one that will be suitable for your situation becomes a lot clearer. This is also covered in my free video training.

 

Depth of Field

When you’re shooting in low light, you have to widen your aperture to allow enough light into the lens. But this has a major side effect. A shallow depth of field.

You can use this in a creative way. But it’s not the only possibility. There are many situations, such as landscapes, where you’ll want to use a narrower aperture. So that the whole scene remains in focus.

This tutorial walks you through everything you need to know about choosing the right aperture (and the DoF) for the right situation.

When it comes to covering all of the basics of photography, DoF is very important.

 

White Balance

White balance is something I wish I’d learned more about much sooner than I did. I look back on some photos now and wonder what I was thinking.

The white balance changes the colour cast of the entire photo. It is responsible for the overall warmth. It can determine whether your photo appears blue or orange, cold or warm.

Auto white balance doesn’t often do a good job. Especially with tungsten light. The sooner you learn about this basic photography idea, the more accurate your photos will look.

This is also covered in my free video training.

 

Focal Length

Have you ever wondered what the ‘mm’ on your lens means? Or why people use longer focal lengths for portraits?

It’s all discussed in this post. The focal length affects more than the ‘zoom’. It also influences the perspective.

I cover which focal length you would want to use in different situations. As well as their possible side effects.

It’s a really worthy read and one of my favourite tutorials to date.

 

Crop Factor

A lot of you may not realize but, unless you spend about $2000 on your camera, you’re shooting on a crop sensor.

This means that your sensor is much smaller than professional SLR cameras. It is cropping your image. The crop factor has a range of effects on your photos.

It creates a narrower viewing angle and will influence your lens purchases in the future. For those beginner photographers, research what lenses will help your field of photography first.

 

Polarizing Filters

Polarizing filters only allow light into the lens from a certain direction. This results in the removal of glare and reflections from non-metallic objects.

Water and glass are the most affected, as well as haze from the sky. Cutting out these reflections and anomalies will make for more natural saturated colours.

This looks fantastic and it cannot be replicated in post-production. That’s why it’s so important to understand.

You Tube Channels to follow

Camera Stuff - https://www.beginnerphotographypodcast.com/photography-tips/23-best-photography-youtube-channels-to-subscribe-to

Editing Stuff - https://blog.feedspot.com/photo_editing_youtube_channels/

Other goods-  https://www.halfhalftravel.com/photography-advice/best-photography-youtube-channels.html

A great source for courses and resources - The Portrait Masters

SLR Lounge and The F-Stoppers are both great to follow as well